Regina Railway Modellers Association
Signals can be found on many railway lines across the country. They are placed to govern the movement of trains on busy lines, where lines cross, where routes diverge or come togther, in yards, at interlockings such as drawbridges, and other locations. Some signals display only one aspect while others may have two or three. They can be on vertical masts, on overhead bridges, or drawf signals close to the ground. Generally, they are to the right of the track they govern.

Rules vary across North America and by railroad. Employee timetables show specific signal aspects but in Canada, the Canadian Rail Operating Rules (CROR) provide most rules in the country. We've included some examples here.
All five of the signals shown above are Clear signals and indicate proceed. (Rule 405)
All five of the signals shown above are known as Clear to Medium signals that indicate proceed, approaching the next signal medium speed. (Rule 407)
All four of the signals shown above are known as Clear to Stop signals that indicate proceed, preparing to stop at the next signal at a speed not exceeding 30 mph. (Rule 411)
The two signals shown above are known as Medium to Clear signals that indicate proceed at medium speed passing the signal and through turnouts. (Rule 422)
All five of the signals above are Stop signals that indicate that a train must stop and stay until a less restrictive signal is given or authorization is given by the Rail Traffic Controller to pass. (Rule 439)
It seems fairly obvious that red indicates stop, but the signals below have a slightly but significantly different meaning.
Flashing aspect
From left to right, Proceed at restricted speed (Rule 435); Stop and Proceed (Rule 437); Stop and Proceed (Rule 437); and Take or Leave Siding signal (Rule 438).
Back to More on Trains